The "New York Mosquito Control Plan"
at no charge to anyone
Beginning Notes... on
NON-TOXIC MOSQUITO CONTROL
PREFORMED ENZYME CLEANERS - Kleen Kill or Kleen Away®
(preformed) enzyme cleaners are organic, enzymatic, bio-catalytic agents
which have proven to be outstandingly effective for mosquito larva and pupae
control. THESE ENZYMES ALTER THE
SURFACE TENSION OF WATER SO THAT LARVAE AND PUPAE HAVE DIFFICULTY MAKING CONTACT
WITH THE AIR ABOVE THE WATER SURFACE film.
Adult mosquitoes cannot maintain surface contact on water treated with
preformed enzymes. Late winter
treatment of potential breeding water will preclude breeding. Other insects, as well as leaves, etc., do not remain on
surface of water treated with preformed enzymes, but sink below the surface.
It is interesting to note that the pupal stage is the most
quickly affected by preformed enzymes, whereas larvae tend to persist for longer
periods both in field and laboratory experience. The opposite is found to be the
case in the use of insecticide poisons, where the larval stage is the one most
quickly killed. In stagnant water,
large pounds, bird bathes, etc. you will note ultra-active response of the
aquatic organisms upon initial addition of performed enzymes, as siphon tubes
can no longer make contact with outside air. Kleen Kill or Kleen Away®
(preformed) enzymes last indefinitely in still or recirculated water.
In many instances 100% control has been achieved.
It is less effective and has less residual effect in moving water or in a
pond with both inlets and outlets.
Water treated with Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® preformed
enzymes or Not Nice to Bugs® are harmless to fish life or animals and pets.
Normally they are non-irritant to the most sensitive skin tissue and, if
accidentally taken internally, would produce only a mild laxative effect
comparable to bland soaps.
Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® enzyme concentrate can be
applied as a spray or dripped into an inlet source; concentrates are instantly
soluble in water. Application
should result on a final tank or pond solution of 1 part concentrate to 50,000
parts water. Dilution for
application is best made at a rate of 1 part concentrate to 1000 parts water,
but stronger solutions may be used.
Enzymes are not registered for use as pesticides by the EPA; the above
information was obtained in extensive field tests by independent parties using
Kleen Kill® preformed enzyme cleaners and listed for informational/educational
purposes only - we only note their potential for use in safe, effective mosquito
Kleen Away Naturally® preformed enzymes cleaner can be purchased from Safe2Use on-line: http://www.safe2use.com/products.htm or call 800-931-9916.
Altosid® or methoprene induces damaging morphological
changes in the second, third and fourth instars of mosquito larvae, resulting in
the failure of adult mosquitoes to emerge from pupae. Timing is very important
because only mature larvae are effected. Impregnated on sand or packaged in slow-release briquettes,
this IGR is effective for 30 days
in standing water. It can be also
applied as a spray solution from the air or ground.
We also highly recommend the use of predatory mosquito larvae (Toxorhychites
spp.), the mermethid or mosquito-attacking nematode, Romanomermis
culcivorax and/or the mosquito-eating fish, Gambusa affinis, killfish
(fundulidae), minnows (cyprinidae), and/or tilapia and or guppies, e.g., Legister
reliculatus wherever possible. The killfishes (Fundulus) in salt water and
the top minnows (Gambusia, Labistes, and Panchax) in fresh water
are most useful. The effective use
of any chemical control depends on species of mosquitoes, the area of country,
the time of year and many other factors. It
is very difficult to obtain satisfactory control of night flying mosquitoes by
treating even very large areas with synthetic pesticide poisons, so never try a
“spot” application. Mosquitoes
are attracted to carbon dioxide, so use dry ice traps.
Avoid exercising outside, especially at dusk, when they are most
voracious. However, there are some
methods which will reduce a mosquito problem on an individual structure basis.
Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® enzymes and/or Not Nice to Bugs® quickly
kill all stages of all species and remain active as long as they are wet- so use
And Now for the Plan----
correctly identify the adult species. Use
a gravid or light trap for monitoring adult mosquitoes.
The Center for Disease Control has standardized the design of light traps
used for mosquito monitoring. Such
traps cannot be used for mosquito control; however, because their capacity is
too limited. Mosquitoes are attracted to the light or dry ice, enter the trap
and are then blown downward by a small fan into a
mesh bag, from which they cannot escape. The Mosquito magnet or the
Dragonfly mosquito traps can be used to lessen or control the mosquito
population - (but, remember Culex pipens only flies a few hundred feet in its
B. Establish tolerance, annoyance, action or injury levels. Find and note the larval source of all the biting adult species. Eliminate the larval sources if at all possible by draining, emptying and/or filling them in. Install bat and/or purple martin houses outside near large bodies of water. Use other biological controls/predators/fans.
C. Inspect the premises thoroughly inside and outside for standing water and other breeding sites. All receptacles in which water can accumulate should be routinely emptied, filled in and/or and destroyed if possible. Plumbing leaks which are causing puddles should be repaired. Bird baths, watering troughs, rain gutters, tires and other potential water storage points which cannot be treated with Kleen Kill® enzymes should be emptied and cleaned at least once a week. Fog inside and outside with Kleen Kill® enzyme cleaners and/or peppermint soaps. Fill in all holes or burrows in the ground, stumps, trees, etc.
D. Permanent standing water, such as ponds, streams, swamps, and drainage ditches, may be treated to control mosquito breeding by using IGR’s like methoprene, marketed as Altosid by Zoecon, Bti, or by goldfish, tilapia, nematodes, guppies (Poecillia reticulata) or the like. Where injury to vegetation is not a problem, oil base sprays e.g., vegetable oil may be applied lightly to cover the water surface. These should be applied at weekly intervals during the mosquito season. Do not use poisons to treat garden fish ponds or any water which will be used or consumed by humans or animals. Prevent breeding situations by regular emptying and cleaning with Kleen Kill® enzymes or by screening and caulking.
E. Buildings and homes which are constantly invaded by mosquitoes usually have defective, missing screening. All screens on windows and doors should be inspected, repaired and tightened. Sixteen to 18 mesh screening should be used to prevent mosquito entry. Be sure to also thoroughly caulk all holes, cracks, crevices and other openings which may also allow entry.
F. Mosquitoes inside a finished building can be temporarily controlled by Kleen Kill® enzyme sprays or vacuums and are permanently controlled by eliminating standing water accumulations. It should never be necessary to apply long-term synthetic pesticide poisons in buildings with proper screening.
G. For personal protection on
outside, protective clothing is always your best defense; try using fans and
soybean oil/or cedar oil, Skin-So-Soft® by Avon, oils of citrosa, coconut,
birch, Lantana camara (Linnaeus), Tarchonantus camphoratus
essential oil, neem, blue stem grass, rosemary, yarrow, spearmint, menthol,
crushed citrosa or lemon thyme leaves, oils of sweet basil, citronella, cedar
wood, lemongrass, peppermint or eucalyptus, electronic repellers and if all else
fails, a combination of these.
Applied to exposed skin, sleeves and trouser cuffs, garlic
repellents can prevent mosquito bites for several hours. If
you are not allergic, try Ultra Muskol®. I
have had good results with some electronic mosquito repellers, but others have
had no effect.
effective ones (that really sound like dragonflies) may attract bats at night.
Buzz Away by Quantum is a non-toxic, outdoor protection formula of
natural ethyl alcohol from plants, plus essential oils of
citronella, cedar wood, lemon grass, peppermint and eucalyptus or use
Kleen Kill® peppermint and/or eucalyptus soaps, Kiss Off! from Kiss My Face
contains citronella oil and Rhodinol (from grasses grown in Sri Lanka) and
Terpineol (from pine trees) along with moisturizers and botanicals.
Menthol will repel some ticks, so try it on mosquitoes, citronella
candles often draw mosquitoes
into the flame. Don’t forget to
simply vacuum them up - use fans. Avoid using sweet scents and avoid cool, moist
places, especially at dawn or dusk
Mosquito bite relief: Soak bites in Epsom salt water or apply a
paste of salt or enzymes mixed into lard or cold cream.
(Remember Culex pipens is only active at night.).
H. Adult mosquito control
outdoors is accomplished by using fans... mosquitoes are not
very strong fliers and will not bother you in the wind. Wear light colors
and prints. Bathe regularly with
peppermint or unfragranced soap. Mow
the lawn regularly. Lightly
mist with Kleen Kill® enzyme cleaners or Kleen Kill® peppermint or garlic or
eucalyptus oil or soaps. Trim
I. Cover the top of rain barrels with a fine screen 14-18 wires per inch - rain water can pass through but the mosquitoes can not. Or add a little vegetable oil to cover the surface or a little Kleen Kill or Kleen Away enzyme cleaner.
J. Plant scented geraniums
or citrosa plants, lemon thyme, citronella grass, common marigold, tomato,
eucalyptus, sweet basil, and/or sassafras by gardens, walks, doors, windows,
decks, pools and patios to help
repel mosquitoes. Note:
Most plants release significant amounts of repellent oils only when their
leaves are crushed. Rub crushed
leaves on a small portion of your skin to see if you get an allergic
reaction before treating” your whole body or pet.
Florida residents have been spotted wearing Bounce®
fabric softener sheets on their belts or sticking out of their pockets to
K. Beneficial Organisms such
as bats, praying mantis, snails. nematodes, toads, birds, dragonflies, fish
should be enticed or introduced into the area with houses and/or releases to
permanently control these serious pests by natural predation.
Mosquitoes are a key source of food for many species of amphipods
(freshwater shrimp) ants, backswimmers, bacteria, bats, birds, crabs,
dragonflies, fish, frogs, toads, fungi, giant waterbugs, ground beetles, hydra,
mites, insectivore plants, parasitic nematocles, predacious snails and spiders. A
mouse-eared bat can eat 600 mosquitoes per hour.
A large dragonfly can eat up to 100 mosquitoes in one forage at speeds up
to 30 mph or more.
L. Candles - Mosquitoes are
drawn to carbon dioxide/light and are killed by the flame. Citronella candles
are said to repel mosquitoes, but never burn them inside; the fumes are also
harmful to your health.
M. Non-toxic (permanent)
mosquito control - Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® enzyme cleaners and/or Kleen
Kill® peppermint soap with enzymes have both proven to be extremely effective
in field tests for mosquito larvae and pupae control.
They alter the surface tension of water so that larvae and pupae have
difficulty making contact with the air above the water surface film. Adult mosquitoes cannot maintain surface contact on water
treated with Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® enzyme cleaners. Late winter treatment
of potential breeding waters will even preclude breeding.
Other insects, as well as leaves, etc. do not remain on surface of water
treated with Kleen Kill or Kleen Away® enzyme cleaners, but sink below the
surface. It is interesting to note
that the pupal stage is the most quickly affected by Kleen Kill® Enzyme
Cleaners or Not Nice to Bugs®, whereas larvae tend to persist for longer
periods both in field and laboratory experience.
The opposite is found to be the case in the use of insecticides, where
the larval stage is the one most quickly killed. In stagnant
water, large ponds, baths, etc., you will note ultra-active erratic
response of the aquatic organisms upon initial addition of Kleen Kill or Kleen
Away® enzymes, as siphon tubes can no longer make contact with outside air.
The active ingredient,
the preformed enzymes, last indefinitely in still or recirculated water.
In many instances 100%
control has been achieved. They both are less effective and have less residual
effect in moving water or in a pond with both inlets and outlets. Directions: Both
can be applied as a spray or dripped into an inlet source. They are both
instantly soluble in water. Application
should result in a final pond or tank or pond solution of one part of either
commercial product to 50,000 parts water. Dilution
for application is best made at the rate of one part of commercial preformed
Kleen Kill® enzyme cleaner to 1000 parts water, but stronger solutions may be
used. Be careful; control may be
N. Resist going on a swatting
rampage when biting insects start hovering overhead.
Studies indicate such movements can double the number of mosquitoes
attracted to you. Some people
are more attractive to mosquitoes than others.
Mosquitoes are attracted to dark clothing, carbon dioxide and sweat.
Prime feeding times are late dusk and early evening.
Some people react more seriously to mosquito saliva, the chemical that
causes the bites to swell and itch. Carry
a small “spritzer” bottle
filled with diluted Kleen Kill® enzymes, apply and rub into to bite area - this
will reduce the swelling and itching.
O. French radio station
FUGUE FM broadcasts an electronic impulse at 16KHz to repel mosquitoes. P. In
1952, Penfold and F.R. Morrson in Australia found the most effective repellent
oils against mosquitoes, march flies and sand flies were the oil of Huon
pine wood (Dacrydium franklini) and leaf oils from Backhousia
myrtifolia, Melaleuca bracteata and Zieria smithii.
Q. Mosquitoes in your room? Turn off the lights and let them settle on the ceiling (or
wall), then flip on the lights and vacuum them up.
Sleep in the breeze of a fan inside or outside.
Deet Note: In
the U. S. alone 50 to 100 million units of insect repellant are sold each year.
The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) banned insect
repellents containing more than 30% Deet. (Yet
New York City gave out a 33% product last Fall.)
Florida health officials note some serious reactions involving children
(including a few deaths) have been reported that may have been linked to this
repellent (that melts plastic) and recommend that products containing Deet
should not be used on children age 5 and under.
So use Deet only with great caution.
Deet can cause eye and sinus irritation, headaches, insomnia, confusion,
etc. Never use Deet on someone with open wounds.
Deet can dissolve nylon and plastic. In April 1998 EPA quietly announced
products containing Deet can no longer be labeled as “child-safe” and must
contain many new restrictions when using on children.
EPA has given the industry 26 months to apply the new restrictions and
allowed the old labeled repellents to be sold for another 50 months — so you
will not see the new restrictions for a long time.
Natural Floodwater and Salt Marsh Mosquito Control -
You can prevent these pests by maintaining high water over the annual floodplain
during the mosquito’s oviposition season. Salt marsh mosquitoes, e.g., Aedes taeniorhynchus and Aedes
sollicitans and floodwater mosquitoes, e.g., Aedes vexans and Aedes
sticticus need soil on which to lay their eggs, and if the area is
continuously flooded during this period, they cannot complete their life cycle.
If you can not flood, use mosquito fish, Gambusia affinnis, Kleen
Kill® Enzyme Cleaners, garlic, methoprene and/or an effective Bti
product or the new Bacillus sphaericus.
Overall Control Summary - Empty, drain, remove, fill in or treat all standing water. Monitor. Try planting scented geraniums (mosquito control plants) near entrances and other openings; rub your skin with the crushed leaves; these plants also make the bathroom smell nice, or try cedar oil and/or fabric softener sheets. Adult female mosquitoes the only ones which bite, can irritate and annoy humans and our pets, and can transfer such diseases as malaria, encephalitis and dog heartworm. Communities nationwide thus have intensive control programs for these pests. Sadly, many programs unnecessarily rely solely on spraying potentially hazardous adult-killing pesticides (adulticides). Mosquitoes develop resistance to all chemical pesticides over time, which renders the volatile, “registered” poisons ineffective. Adulticides, such as the highly toxic organophosphates present considerable risk to all living things, and kill beneficial insects and other non-target organisms. Natural mosquito predators such as dragonflies, damselflies and beetles are killed by adulticides and take longer to come back. (Dr. Wald from Libertyville, Illinois may have stared the “rumor” that a purple martin can eat 6,600 mosquitoes a day. Dr. Wald sold aluminum purple martin birdhouses.) According to the President of the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA), excessive spraying may exacerbate and even create mosquito problems by eliminating natural predators. Sensible control strategies involve reduction of breeding sites, which provides long-term restraints on mosquito populations, and controlling the mosquito during aquatic states before they mature and have a chance to reproduce, transfer disease and annoy. Bug zapping lights can attract more pests into a yard than they kill, and do not reduce the numbers of mosquito bites. Volatile oils and perfumes, such as Skin-so-Soft and cedar wood, can repel insects but wear off rapidly so must be applied repeatedly. Use fans to cover localized areas to harmlessly remove mosquitoes. Habitat reduction measures can often be simple and can provide long-term effectiveness. Install bat houses to encourage these mosquito feeders to establish residence. Enhancing drainage of flood canals, irrigation ditches and fields; keeping street gutters and catch basins free of debris and flowing properly; enhancing drainage, or creating permanent deep pools in marshes, and the elimination of other large and small breeding habitats, e.g., cans, tires, bird baths, plugged rain gutters, etc., all are good preventative measures.
Tracking larval and adult population numbers, species types and breeding locations provides invaluable information used for determining when, where and what control measures might be needed. Larvaciding allows effective control for mosquitoes at the source before they become a nuisance and can be done with biological control techniques. Mosquito fish of the Gambusia genus are distributed by the thousands nationwide. Only indigenous species should be used. Be aware that they have occasionally triggered algal blooms after consuming algae eating organisms. Bti (bacillus thuringiensis var. israelenis), one of the most popular and effective least-toxic biological controls, is a bacterial strain which, when sprayed into larval pools, is ingested by feeding larvae and kills them, or try Bacillus sphaevicus. Oils kill via mechanical means by coating water surfaces, which suffocates all stages of mosquito larvae and mosquito pupae. Arosurf MSF® is a very thin vegetable-based oil that not only kills larvae but sinks egg rafts and adults on the surface by changing the water tension. It is registered for application into potable water, is applied at rates of only .2 to .5 gallons per acre, and biodegrades in three to ten days. Unfortunately oils can kill non-target organisms, including some predators, which similarly breathe from the surface. Golden Bear Oil® is another popular larvacide. It is petroleum-based oil which, while purer than more traditional diesel oils, persists and affects non-target organisms. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator supposedly of low toxicity to mammals that disrupts normal growth patterns to arrest development in the pupal stage, which leaves larvae available as food for wildlife but prevents the emergence of adults. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator supposedly of low toxicity to mammals that disrupts normal growth patterns to arrest development in the pupal stage, which leaves larvae available as food for wildlife but prevents the emergence of adults. Other insect growth regulators, like dimilin, kill larvae when they molt by interfering with outer shell development. Unfortunately, other insects and crustaceans can also be killed upon molting by disruption of the same processes. Try an overall broadcast application of Kleen Kill® enzyme cleaner, but remember enzymes will also kill all insects even the beneficial ones. Try applying dilutions of various essential oils to pulse points on your body every hour or so as described in the section Blood Feeders Overview. If practical, wear two layers of tightly knit or woven (tucked in) clothing, avoid sandals, floral prints, loose clothing, the color blue (the preferred color of mosquitoes), hair spray, perfumes and other attractive fragrances. Stay away from stagnant water. If in a serious attack cover your skin with mud and/or seek immediate refuge in a building or a thicket or body of water. Fog/mist the area with Kleen Kill® enzyme cleaners and/or Kleen Kill® peppermint soap or Not Nice to Bugs® or garlic oil to down/destroy/repel mosquitoes.
DEET-free Products -
All-Natural Bug Discouragent!
Crocodile! is an all natural bug discouragent that drives insects crazy. It is effective on mosquitoes, black flies, sand fleas and other gnats and pests. A single application keeps them away for hours, yet it's safe for the skin and the environment.
Naturale ltd. in Mineola, NY
makes a timed vapor release glo-wristband using 30% geraniol that supposedly is
reusable for up to 60 hours. It is
advertised to repel mosquitoes, gnats and fleas in all outdoor activities
including swimming. Your body heat
activates the volatile oil in about 10 - 15 minutes. It may cause a skin reaction in rare cases. Naturale makes
several other DEET-free products and can be reached at 1-516-829-1540.
Bite Blocker is another insect repellant on the market that combines
soybean oil, geranium oil and coconut oil; this product is said to be far
superior to DEET and Skin-So-Soft. Buy or make your own DEET-free repellents.
American Biophysics based in East Greenwich, RI is
marketing the Mosquito Magnet, a device about the size of a gas barbecue that
emits a plume of carbon dioxide that attracts mosquitoes. The device then sucks them into a small vacuum where they
dehydrate and die within a day. Biosensory, Inc. of Willimantic, CT is
expected to market the Dragonfly, a similar trap in the shape of an 18” bird.
Mosquito Attractant - The summer cypress, a/k/a the
burning bush because it is so deep red in the autumn, contains an oil or fatty
acid in its seeds that can be used or converted into a pheromone-like substance
that attracts females of all Culex species to a water source where they can lay
their eggs. Squeeze the oil from
the seeds and place it directly near water diluted with 1 part Kleen Kill Enzyme
cleaner per 500 - 1000 parts of water.
Lime - It has been suggested by a field engineer that lime be added to stagnant water to control mosquitoes, but I have not yet field tested this control technique as to dosage or safety or efficacy, but it is intriguing and very inexpensive..
Kleen Away Naturally® preformed enzymes cleaner can be purchased from Safe2Use on-line: http://www.safe2use.com/products.htm or call 800-931-9916.
I do not believe in the thesis, “Let the buyer beware.” I prefer one that states: “Let the seller/applicator be honest.” Stephen L. Tvedten